THE METHOD OF CALCULATING EFFECTIVE RESILIENT PROPERTIES OF ORIENTED POLYMERS
Synyuk Oleh, Khmelnytskiy National University, Khmelnytskiy, Ukraine
Urgency of the research. Nowadays the problem of polymer materials recycling is relevant not only from the standpoint of environmental protection, but also due to the fact of the plastic waste shortage, polymers are becoming powerful energy source.
Target setting. During the plastic waste processing, in the first stage they should be subjected to drawing that provides a transition from undirected polymers state to crystalline oriented one. This will lead to change in the elastic properties of polymers that can be associated with the major deformation of ultimate levels of polymer supramolecular structure.
Actual scientific researches and issues analysis. As a result of the structural analysis conducted by various physical methods, we found that in the undirected state of spherulite polymer structure there are two basic levels of supramolecular polymer structures – spherulites with heterogeneous crystal structure of amorphous and ones, having a homogeneous disordered structure.
Uninvestigated parts of general matters defining. Mechanical models, existing today, do not include structural features of the supramolecular structure of polymers, the relationship between amorphous and crystalline components, do not allow quantitatively observe the structural changes occurring during deformation of the polymer.
The research objective. Development of a method for calculating the effective elastic properties of polymers with oriented structure. The method is based on the construction the structural theory of drawing partially crystalline polymers which is based on the hypothesis of existence of a quantitative relation between drawing parameters, characteristics of the supermolecular structure and indices of the mechanical properties of the main structural levels forming at certain drawing stages.
The statement of basic materials. The process of oriented drawing is shown to be simulated as a uniform compression/tension with the transformation coefficient equaling the draw ratio. The proposed approach gave rise to a theory of homogeneous structural stresses and effective module for the spherulite supermolecular structure. The equations were obtained which allowed to predict the structural stresses and elastic characteristics of oriented partially crystalline polymers of the spherulite structure. The theory allows to describe the influence of drawing on the elastic properties of a wide range of partially crystalline polymers.
Dependencies, obtained in the article, can determine the degree of drawing, by which begins the fracture of spherulite structure. That has allowed to develop a method for determining the degree of boundary drawing, in which spherulite structure turns into fibrous. This technique can be used in the design of equipment for plastic waste processing.
waste, polymer destruction, spherulite, drawing, fibril
1. Baranov, V.G., Gasparyan, K.A., Frenkel, S.Ia. (1968). Nabliudenie priamoi geneticheskoi sviazi mezhdu sferolitnym i orientatsionnym nadmolekuliarnym poriadkom [Observation of a direct genetic link between spherulitic supramolecular order and orientation]. Dokl. AN SSSR – Report of the USSR Academy of Sciences, vol. 183 no. 1, pp. 137–140 (in Russian).
2. Zhurkov, S.N., Marikhin, V.A., Myasnikova, L.P., Slutsker, A.I. (1965). Elektronno-mikroskopicheskoe izuchenie protsessa orientirovaniia polikaproamida [Electron microscopic research the process of orientation polikaproamida]. Vysokomolekulyarnye soedineniya. Ser. A. – High-molecular compounds, Ser. A., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1041–1044 (in Russian).
3. Kargin, V.A., Selikhova, V.I., Markova, P.S. (1965). Izuchenie protsessov rastyazheniya i sokrashcheniya plenok polietilena so sferolitnymi strukturami [The research of processes stretching and reduce pellicle of polyethylene what has spherulites structure]. Vysokomolekulyarnye soedineniya. Ser. A. – High-molecular compounds, Part A., vol. 7, no. 9 , pp. 1495–1499 (in Russian).
4. Synyuk, O.M. (2016). Model budovy nedeformovanykh polimeriv sferolitnoi struktury [Model structure undeformed polymer spherulitic structure]. Visnyk Khmelnytskoho natsionalnoho universytetu – Visnyk of Khmelnytsky National University. Series “Technical sciences”, no. 3 (237), pp. 181–188 (in Ukrainian).
5. Uord, I.M. (1975). Mekhanicheskie svoystva tverdykh polimerov [Mechanical properties of solid polymers]. Moscow : Khimiia (in Russian).
6. Takayanagi, M., Imada, K., Kajiyama, T. (1966). Mechanical properties and fine structure of draw polymers. J. Polymer Sci, Part C, no. 15, pp. 263–281.
7. Odajima, A., Maeda, T. (1966). Calculation of the elastic constant and the lattice energy of the polyethylene crystal. J. Polymer Sci, Part C, № 15, pp. 55–74.
8. Perepelkin, K.E. (2009). Struktura i strukturnaya mekhanika polimernykh volokon: sovremennye predstavleniya [Structure and structural mechanics of polymer fibers: modern representations]. Khimicheskie volokna – Chemical fibers, no. 1, pp. 11–20 (in Russian).
9. Synyuk, O.M. (2016). Vyznachennia pruzhnykh vlastyvostei amorfno-krystalichnykh polimeriv sferolitnoi struktury [Determination of the elastic properties of amorphous-crystalline polymer of spherulites structure].Visnyk Vinnytskoho natsionalnoho tekhnichnoho universytetu. – Visnyk of Vinnitsa National Technical University. Series “Technical sciences”, no. 6, p. 8 (in Ukrainian).
10. Privalko, V.P. (1986). Molekulyarnoe stroenie i svoystva polimerov [The molecular structure and properties of polymers].Leningrad: Khimiia (in Russian).
11. Nilsen, L. (1978). Mekhanicheskie svoystva polimerov i polimernykh kompozitsiy [The mechanical properties of polymers and polymer compositions]. Moscow: Khimiia (in Russian).
12. Synyuk, O.M. (2016). Modeliuvannia zminy nadmolekuliarnoi struktury polimernykh materialiv pry oriientatsiinii vytiazhtsi [Modeling changes supramolecular structure of polymer materials during orientation drawing]. Visnyk Khmelnytskoho natsionalnoho universytetu – Visnyk of Khmelnytsky National University. Series “Technical sciences”, no. 6, p. 6 (in Ukrainian).
13. Marikhin, V.A., Myasnikova, L.P. (1977). Nadmolekulyarnaya struktura polimerov [Supramolecular structure of polymers].Leningrad: Khimiia (in Russian).
14. Baranov, V.G., Gasparyan, K.A., Zurabyan, R.S., Edilyan, E.S., Frenkel, S.Ia. (1969). Osobennosti orientatsionnogo nadmolekulyarnogo poryadka, obrazuyushchegosya pri rastyazhenii sferolitnykh plenok polietilena vysokogo davleniya [The particular qualities supramolecular orientational order, resulting in tension spherulitic high-pressure polyethylene pellicles. Vysokomolekulyarnye soedineniya. Ser. A – High-molecular compounds, Part A, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1247–1256 (in Russian).
15. Vanin, G.A. (1985). Mikromekhanika kompozitsionnykh materialov [Micromechanics of composite materials]. Kiev: Naukova dumka (in Russian).
16. Samuels, R.J. Structured polymer properties. Wiley InterScience. – New York, 1974.
17. Kostritskiy, V.V. (1984). Vliianie protsessa dvukhosnoi orientatsii na strukturu polietilentereftalatnykh plenok [Influence of the process of biaxial orientation on the structure of polyethylene terephthalate pellicles].Prikladnaya mekhanika – Engineering, mechanics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 75–80 (in Russian).